by

TINJAUAN TEORI PERBUATAN  MELAWAN  HUKUM

TINJAUAN TEORI PERBUATAN  MELAWAN  HUKUM

 

SCHUTZNORMTHEORIE  (Teori Norma Perlindungan) disebut juga ajaran  RELATIVITAS  (penerapan teori ini membeda – bedakan perlakuan terhadap  korban dari  suat perbuatan melawan/melanggar hukum atau dalam bahasa asing disebut (onrechtmatige daad; act against the law; unlawful act), berasal dari Jerman, dipelopori oleh   PITLO  dan diperkenalkan di negeri Belanda oleh  GELEIN VITRINGA, adalah suatu aliran yang  mengajarkan  bahwa “Agar  terhadap seseorang atau badan hukum atau Badan Pemerintahan atau Penguasa  atau Pejabat Pemerintahan  dapat dimintakan tanggung jawabnya karena telah melakukan perbuatan melawan hukum, sebagaimana ditentukan dalam Pasal 1365 Kitab Undang – Undang Hukum Perdata (KUHPerdata) atau yang dahulu disebut Burgerlijk Wetboek voor Indonesia (BW)   maka tidak cukup hanya menunjukkan adanya hubungan kausal antara  perbuatan yang dilakukan  dengan  kerugian yang timbul. Akan tetapi perlu juga ditunjukkan bahwa norma atau peraturan yang dilanggar tersebut memang untuk melindungi (schutz) terhadap kepentingan korban yang dilanggar”.

AANPRAKELIJKHEID THEORY  (Teori Tanggung Gugat) adalah teori untuk menentukan siapakah yang harus menerima gugatan atau kepada siapa gugatan harus ditujukan  (siapa yang harus digugat atau menjadi TERGUGAT) karena adanya suatu perbuatan melawan hukum (onrechtmatige daad; act against the law; unlawful act). Mengenai  Tanggung Gugat atas Perbuatan Melawan Hukum/Perbuatan Melanggar Hukum  yang dilakukan oleh orang lain, dalam ilmu hukum disebut dengan istilah  VICARIOUS LAIBILITY (Tanggung Jawab Pengganti/Tanggung Jawab Subordinasi).

Teori Tanggung Gugat atas Perbuatan Melawan Hukum/Perbuatan Melawan Hukum yang dilakukan orang lain, ditinjau dari aspek Hukum Perdata dapat dibagi menjadi 3 (tiga) kategori yaitu:

  1. Teori tanggung jawab atasan (Respondeat Superior / a superior risk bearing theory).
  1. Teori tanggung jawab pengganti yang bukan dari atasan atas orang – orang yang menjadi (dalam) tanggungannya.
  1. Teori tanggung jawab pengganti dari barang – barang yang berada dibawah tanggungannya.

Kitab Undang – Undang Hukum Perdata (KUHPerdata) atau yang dahulu disebut Burgerlijk Wetboek voor Indonesia (BW)  mengklasifikasikan  peristiwa – peristiwa hukum yang menjadi cakupan atau ruang lingkup (scope) pertanggungjawaban secara  Tanggung Gugat, sebagai berikut:

  1. Orang tua atau wali bertanggung gugat atas tindakan yang dilakukan oleh anak – anak dibawah tanggungannya atau dibawah perwaliannya (Pasal 1367 KUHPerdata);
  1. Majikan bertanggung gugat atas tindakan yang dilakukan oleh pekerjanya (Pasal 1367 KUHPerdata);
  1. Guru – guru sekolah bertanggung gugat atas tindakan murid – muridnya (Pasal 1367 KUHPerdata);
  1. Kepala – kepala tukang bertanggung gugat atas tindakan yang dilakukan oleh tukang – tukangnya (Pasal 1367 KUHPerdata);
  1. Pemilik binatang bertanggung gugat atas tindakan/perbuatan yang dilakukan oleh binatang peliharaannya (Pasal 1368 KUHPerdata);
  1. Pemakai binatang bertanggung gugat atas tindakan/perbuatan yang dilakukan oleh binatang yang dipakainya (Pasal 1368 KUHPerdata);
  1. Pemilik suatu gedung bertanggung gugat atas ambruknya/runtuhnya gedung, yang disebabkan karena:
  • Kelalaian dalam pemeliharaan, atau;
  • Karena cacat dalam pembangunan maupun dalam penataannya (Pasal 1369 KUHPerdata);

Pada prinsipnya, setiap orang yang menderita/mengalami kerugian (baik materil maupun immateril) karena adanya Perbuatan Melawan Hukum, mempunyai dasar/alasan untuk mengajukan gugatan (CAUSE OF ACTION) berdasarkan ketentuan Pasal 1365 KUHPerdata. Maksud frasa  “pada prinsipnya” adalah berhubungan dengan asas dalam Hukum Acara Perdata yang menyatakan “Hakim/Pengadilan bersifat menunggu” dengan pengertian “tidak ada persidangan kalau tidak ada gugatan”. Kerugian yang dimaksudkan dalam gugatan merupakan  kerugian yang dialami/diderita oleh suatu pihak atau seseorang yang  mempunyai hubungan sebab akibat (KAUSALITAS) dengan perbuatan yang dilakukan oleh orang atau pihak yang menimbulkan kerugian tersebut, baik hubungan sebab akibat yang faktual (SINE QUA NON) maupun sebab akibat kira – kira atau penyebab langsung (PROXIMATE CAUSE).

Kategori yuridis dari pihak yang dirugikan/pihak korban atas suatu Perbuatan Melawan Hukum, dapat diklasifikasikan sebagai berikut:

  1. Pihak yang dirugikan/korban itu sendiri secara langsung;
  1. Penerima nafkah, sesuai dengan Pasal 1370 KUHPerdata, yaitu:
  • Suami atau isteri yang ditinggalkan;
  • anak atau orang tua dari korban;
  1. Keluarga sedarah garis lurus dan isteri atau suami, sesuai pasal 1375 KUHperdata yaitu:
  • Orang tua;
  • Kakek – nenek;
  • Anak dan cucu;
  • Ahli waris pada umumnya, sesuai dengan prinsip – prinsip hukum waris yang berlaku;
  1. Pihak lain yang memperoleh hak dari pihak yang dirugikan/pihak korban, sesuai ketentuan peraturan perundang – undangan.

Menurut doctrine yang dikemukakan oleh Prof. PURWAHID PATRIK, SH., maka syarat – syarat yang harus dipenuhi untuk mengajukan gugatan berdasarkan perbuatan melawan hukum kepada Pengadilan yang berwenang sesuai dengan yurisdiksinya, yaitu:

  • Harus ada perbuatan;

Pasal 1365 KUHPerdata mengatur tentang perbuatan positif, sedangkan Pasal 1366 KUHperdata mengatur mengenai kelalaian atau tidak hati – hati;

  • Perbuatan tersebut melawan hukum;
  • Harus ada kesalahan;
  • Harus ada hubungan sebab akibat antara perbuatan dan kerugian;
  • Harus ada kerugian;

Menurut VOLLMAR, kesalahan dalam unsur – unsur perbuatan melawan hukum terdiri dari:

  • Kesalahan dalam arti SUBYEKTIF/ABSTRAK mengandung pengertian yaitu pihak atau pelaku Perbuatan Melawan Hukum dianggap  dapat dipertanggungjawabkan atas perbuatan salah yang dilakukannya;
  • Kesalahan dalam arti  OBYEKTIF/KONKRIT yaitu apakah ada keadaan memaksa (OVERMACHT/FORCE MAJEURE) atau keadaan darurat (NOODTOESTAND). Dalam hal terdapat keadaan memaksa atau keadaan darurat maka pihak atau pelaku Perbuatan Melawan Hukum dianggap tidak dapat dipertanggungjawabkan atas perbuatannya, oleh karena dalam hal tersebut  dianggap tidak ada kesalahan;

Akibat adanya Perbuatan Melawan Hukum maka pihak yang dirugikan/pihak korban dapat menuntut “GANTI RUGI”  yang antara lain berupa:

  • Ganti rugi yang bersifat materil;
  • Ganti rugi yang bersifat immateril;
  • Uang paksa;
  • Memulihkan dalam keadaan semula;
  • Larangan untuk mengulangi perbuatan itu lagi;
  • Dapat minta putusn hakim bahwa perbuatannya adalah bersifat melawan hukum;

Menurut Prof. PURWAHID PATRIK, SH., gugatan perdata yang bersifat contentious (contentiosa) jurisdiction  yang dapat diajukan berdasarkan Pasal 1365 KUHPerdata, melipui:

  • Perusakan barang (menimbulkan kerugian material);
  • Ganguan/HINDER (menimbulkan kerugian immateril yaitu mengurangi kenikmatan atas sesuatu);
  • Menyalahgunakan hak (orang menggunakan barang miliknya sendiri tanpa kepentingan yang patut, tujuannya untuk merugikan orang lain);

Dalam sistem hukum Romawi sudah dikenal beberapa jenis perbuatan melawan hukum, yaitu:

  • Furtum (Conversion) ~ Konversi;
  • Rapina (Forceable Conversion) ~ Konversi Paksa;
  • Iniuria (Wilful aggression upon personality) ~ Serangan dengan sengaja terhadap pribadi/kepribadian seseorang;
  • Dammum Iniuria Datum (Wrongfull Injury to Property) ~ Perbuatan salah terhadap harta kekayaan/harta benda;

Perbuatan melawan hukum dalam Sistem Hukum Eropa Kontinental (Civil Law System), yang pada dasarnya berasal dari hukum Romawi, antara lain dari kumpulan kaidah hukum sebagai dokumen legal, yang terdapat dalam :

  • The Twelve Tables;
  • Lex Aquilla;
  • The Edict.

Jenis – jenis Perbuatan Pelawan Hukum  (onrechtmatige daad; act against the law; unlawful act) yang berkembang dalam sistem hukum Inggris (dengan konsep common law system)  yang masih berlaku sampai saat ini, antara lain:

  • Assault (serangan);
  • Battery (kejahatan);
  • Imprisonment (pemenjaraan secara tidak sah);
  • Trespass on Lands (Memasuki pekarangan orang lain tanpa ijin);
  • Trespass on Chattels (Memasuki tanpa ijin barang bergerak milik orang lain);
  • Conversion (Konversi) yaitu perbuatan melawan hukum berupa dengan sengaja mengambil hak kepemilikan orang lain;
  • Deceit (Penipuan);
  • Malicious Prosecution (Penuntutan yang sembrono dan melanggar prosedur hukum);
  • Slander (fitnah secara lisan/melalui ucapan);
  • Libel (Fitnah secara tertulis/melalui tulisan);

Sebagai perbandingan dapat pula dikemukakan bahwa di Amerika Serikat (United States), pada abad ke – 20  cakupan Perbuatan Melawan Hukum yang berhubungan dengan intervensi terhadap kepentingan/hubungan kontraktual atau hubungan bisnis orang lain telah mengalami perkembangan, meliputi:

  • Menjelek – jelekan kepemilikan (Slander of Title);
  • Menjelek – jelekan properti (Disparagement of Property);
  • Menjelek – jelekan barang (Slender of Goods);
  • Menjelek – jelekan kepentingan Komersial (Commercial Disparagement);
  • Menjelek – jelekan kepentingan dagang (Trade Libel);
  • Intervensi terhadap hubungan kontraktual (Interference with Contractual Relations);
  • Intervensi terhadap keuntungan yang diharapkan (Interference with Prospective Advantage).

Rumusan Pasal 1365 KUHPerdata menentukan persyaratan bahwa harus terdapat  “Unsur Kesalahan” agar suatu pihak atau seseorang dapat dimintai pertanggungjawaban mengenai Perbuatan Melawan Hukum. “Unsur Kesalahan”   dianggap terpenuhi apabila  terdapat salah satu dari antara 3 (tiga) syarat, sebagai berikut:

  1. Ada unsur kesengajaan;
  2. Ada unsur kelalaian (culpa, negligence);
  3. Tidak ada alasan pembenar atau alasan pemaaf (rechtvaardigingsgrond), seperti keadaan memaksa (overmacht), membela diri, tidak waras, dan tidak cakap;

Penerapan Tanggung Gugat suatu Badan Hukum atas Perbuatan Melawan Hukum dari organ  atau instansi atau institusi tingkat bawahannya (subordinasi) berlaku juga bagi negara dan badan – badan kenegaraan lainnya, seperti Provinsi, Kotamadya, Kabupaten dan sebagainya. Ketentuan Pasal 1365 KUHPerdata mempunyai daya keberlakuan secara umum dan tidak membedakan – bedakan antara  Perbuatan Melawan Hukum yang dilakukan oleh Negara/Penguasa/Pejabat/Instansi Pemerintahan dengan pihak lain termasuk  rakyat biasa sesuai dengan asas equality before the law yang dianut oleh Negara Hukum modern.

Writer and Copy Right:
Dr. (Cand.) Appe Hamonangan Hutauruk, SH., MH.
Lecturer, Advocate and Legal Consultant
Handphone: 0818964919, 085959597919, 081213502002

 

______________________________

HIMBAUAN PARTISIPASI:

Sebagai PEMILIK dan PENULIS artikel – artikel dalam Website https://beritahukum-kebijakanpublik.com, saya mengajak:

  • Mengajak VENDOR untuk memasang iklan pada artikel – artikel di website https://beritahukum-kebijakanpublik.com dengan langsung menghubungi saya;
  • Mempersilahkan rekan – rekan dan khalayak umum untuk mengcopy seluruh konten yang terdapat dalam website https://beritahukum-kebijakanpublik.com. Akan tetapi sebagai ungkapan KEPEDULIAN kiranya berkenan memberikan partisipasi sukarela melalui transfer ke rekening Bank BNI No. 0263783536 atas nama APPE HUTAURUK.

Semoga dengan kepedulian yang diberikan, saya dapat terus berkarya memposting artikel – artikel yang bermanfaat bagi dunia pendidikan, masyarakat serta bangsa dan negara.

#SalamPersasaudaraan:
APPE HAMONANGAN HUTAURUK

 

LAW  FIRM APPE  HAMONANGAN   HUTAURUK & ASSOCIATES
KETUA  UMUM  DPP LSM  KOMAKOPEPA
AKTIVIS’98

About Author: Appe Hamonangan Hutauruk

Gravatar Image
Appe Hamonangan Hutauruk selaku Penulis tunggal pada Website: "BERITA HUKUM & KEBIJAKAN PUBLIK" adalah seorang "Pegiat Penegakkan Hukum dan Hak Asasi Manusia" serta "Pemerhati Sosial Kemasyarakatan" yang berprofesi sebagai Advokat (Advocate), Konsultan Hukum (Legal Consultant) dan Dosen (lecturer) pada salah satu Universitas swasta di Jakarta, selain itu juga menduduki jabatan sebagai Ketua Umum pada Lembaga Swadaya Masyarakat (LSM) bernama "Komunitas Masyarakat Anti Korupsi dan Penggelapan Pajak (KOMAKOPEPA). youtube.com/c/BeritaHukumKebijakanPublik

Comment

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.

416 comments

  1. Appreciating the hard work you put into your website and detailed information you present.
    It’s good to come across a blog every once in a while that
    isn’t the same out of date rehashed information. Wonderful read!
    I’ve bookmarked your site and I’m including your RSS feeds to my Google account.

  2. Needed to post you that tiny remark in order to give thanks
    over again with the lovely tactics you’ve shown on this website.
    This is extremely generous with you to make extensively all most people would have supplied for an e book to help make some money
    for themselves, particularly now that you could possibly
    have tried it in case you wanted. These good tips also worked to be a good way to fully grasp most
    people have the same desire just like my very own to know the truth much more on the topic of this condition. I’m certain there are thousands of more pleasurable
    times in the future for individuals who read through your website.

    Feel free to surf to my blog post; clubriders.men

  3. I just wanted to thank you once more for the amazing website you have made here.
    It can be full of useful tips for those who are really interested in this kind of subject,
    in particular this very post. You’re really all so sweet
    along with thoughtful of others and reading your website posts is a wonderful delight to me.
    And what a generous reward! Mary and I will
    certainly have excitement making use of your ideas in what
    we must do in the future. Our checklist is a kilometer long so your tips are
    going to be put to beneficial use.

    Look into my blog – tanhuaba.xyz

  4. Hello! I know this is kinda off topic nevertheless I’d figured
    I’d ask. Would you be interested in exchanging links or
    maybe guest authoring a blog post or vice-versa?
    My site discusses a lot of the same subjects as yours and
    I think we could greatly benefit from each other.

    If you’re interested feel free to shoot me an email.

    I look forward to hearing from you! Superb blog by the way!

  5. I am really enjoying the theme/design of your site.

    Do you ever run into any internet browser compatibility problems?
    A handful of my blog visitors have complained about my site not working correctly
    in Explorer but looks great in Safari. Do you have any recommendations to help fix this problem?

    Review my page http://www.kg69.com

  6. I have been exploring for a little bit for any high-quality articles or blog posts in this kind of space .
    Exploring in Yahoo I finally stumbled upon this site. Studying this information So i am happy to show
    that I’ve an incredibly excellent uncanny feeling
    I discovered just what I needed. I such a lot surely will make sure to
    don’t omit this web site and provides it a glance on a relentless basis.

    Also visit my web site: kebe.top

  7. Greetings from Los angeles! I’m bored to tears at work so I decided to check out your blog on my iphone during lunch break.
    I really like the knowledge you provide here and can’t wait
    to take a look when I get home. I’m surprised at how fast your blog loaded on my cell phone ..
    I’m not even using WIFI, just 3G .. Anyways, very good site!

    Here is my web site: frun-test.sakura.ne.jp

  8. An outstanding share! I’ve just forwarded this onto a friend who has been conducting
    a little homework on this. And he in fact bought me dinner due to the fact that I stumbled upon it for him…
    lol. So allow me to reword this…. Thank YOU for the meal!!
    But yeah, thanks for spending the time to talk about this issue here on your internet site.

    Here is my web blog – clubriders.men

  9. Sweet blog! I found it while surfing around on Yahoo News.
    Do you have any tips on how to get listed in Yahoo News? I’ve been trying for a while but I never seem
    to get there! Cheers

    Here is my web blog :: lubertsi.net

  10. I am only writing to make you understand what a cool encounter my princess developed studying your web site.
    She came to find many issues, most notably how it is like to have an awesome helping mood to
    get the mediocre ones with no trouble fully understand specified problematic
    things. You undoubtedly surpassed people’s desires. I appreciate you for
    delivering those precious, trustworthy,
    edifying and cool tips about this topic to Julie.

    my homepage: kebe.top

  11. Wow, superb weblog structure! How lengthy have you been running a blog for?
    you made blogging look easy. The overall glance of your site is excellent, let alone the
    content![X-N-E-W-L-I-N-S-P-I-N-X]I simply couldn’t leave your web site before suggesting that I
    extremely enjoyed the standard information a person supply in your guests?

    Is gonna be back continuously to investigate cross-check new
    posts.

    My web blog … http://kannikar.com/Business/www-worklifestrife-com/

  12. I’ve been exploring for a bit for any high-quality articles or blog posts on this sort of space .
    Exploring in Yahoo I at last stumbled upon this site. Studying this info So i am glad to express
    that I’ve an incredibly good uncanny feeling I came upon exactly what I
    needed. I such a lot definitely will make sure to do not disregard this website
    and provides it a glance regularly.

    my blog post :: https://www.qijiang520.com

  13. It’s truly very complex in this full of activity life to listen news on TV,
    so I only use world wide web for that purpose, and get the most recent news.

    Stop by my blog post … kebe.top

  14. You really make it appear really easy together with your presentation however I to
    find this topic to be really something that I think I might never understand.

    It seems too complicated and extremely wide for me.

    I’m taking a look ahead in your next post, I’ll attempt to
    get the dangle of it!

    Also visit my site; mpc-install.com

  15. I’m extremely impressed with your writing skills as well as with the layout on your weblog.
    Is this a paid theme or did you modify it yourself?
    Either way keep up the nice quality writing, it’s rare to see a nice
    blog like this one nowadays.

    My web page – mpc-install.com

  16. Great goods from you, man. I’ve keep in mind your stuff previous
    to and you’re just extremely great. I really like what you’ve got here, really like what you are saying and the way during which you are saying it.

    You’re making it entertaining and you continue to
    care for to stay it wise. I can not wait to learn much more from
    you. That is really a tremendous site.

    Here is my web-site; kebe.top

  17. Thanks, I have just been looking for information approximately this subject for
    a while and yours is the greatest I have came upon till now.
    However, what about the conclusion? Are you sure about the
    source?

    My site :: 163.30.42.16

  18. Pretty section of content. I just stumbled upon your website and in accession capital to
    claim that I acquire in fact enjoyed account your blog posts.
    Any way I’ll be subscribing for your augment and
    even I achievement you access persistently rapidly.

  19. Howdy this is kinda of off topic but I was wondering
    if blogs use WYSIWYG editors or if you have to manually code with HTML.
    I’m starting a blog soon but have no coding experience so I wanted to get advice
    from someone with experience. Any help would be greatly appreciated!

  20. Can I simply just say what a relief to find an individual who really understands what they are talking about online.
    You definitely realize how to bring an issue to light and make it important.

    More people ought to check this out and understand this side of
    your story. I can’t believe you’re not more popular since
    you certainly possess the gift.

    Feel free to visit my homepage – http://www.consulenzaleonardo.com/modules.php?name=Your_Account&op=userinfo&username=RoyerDevin

  21. Hey, I think your site might be having browser compatibility
    issues. When I look at your website in Safari, it looks fine but when opening in Internet Explorer, it
    has some overlapping. I just wanted to give you a quick
    heads up! Other then that, superb blog!

    Visit my web-site … bbs.zhichiwangluo.com

  22. Have you ever considered writing an ebook or
    guest authoring on other blogs? I have a blog centered on the same ideas
    you discuss and would really like to have you share some stories/information. I know my visitors would
    appreciate your work. If you are even remotely interested, feel free to shoot me an e mail.

    my blog post … http://www.anapapansion.ru

  23. Definitely believe that which you said. Your favorite
    reason appeared to be on the web the simplest thing to be aware of.
    I say to you, I definitely get annoyed while people consider worries that they
    just don’t know about. You managed to hit the nail
    upon the top and also defined out the whole thing without having side-effects , people could take a signal.
    Will likely be back to get more. Thanks

    My homepage … https://mpc-install.com/punbb-1.4.6/viewtopic.php?id=260543

  24. This design is spectacular! You certainly know how to keep a reader amused.
    Between your wit and your videos, I was almost moved to start my own blog (well, almost…HaHa!) Fantastic job.
    I really enjoyed what you had to say, and more than that, how
    you presented it. Too cool!

    Here is my website :: chengdian.cc

  25. Simply desire to say your article is as astonishing.
    The clarity on your put up is just cool and that i can think you’re a professional in this subject.
    Well with your permission allow me to grasp your feed to stay up to date with approaching post.
    Thanks one million and please carry on the rewarding
    work.

    Also visit my website :: https://kebe.top/

  26. I just like the helpful info you provide on your
    articles. I will bookmark your weblog and
    check again right here frequently. I’m somewhat certain I’ll be told
    many new stuff right right here! Good luck for the next!

    My web site – grautocar.com

  27. Nice read, I just passed this onto a colleague
    who was doing a little research on that. And he actually bought me lunch because I found it for him smile So let me rephrase that: Thank you for lunch!

    Also visit my blog; kebe.top

  28. Superb site you have here but I was wanting to know if you knew of any discussion boards that cover the same topics talked about in this article?
    I’d really love to be a part of group where I can get feedback from
    other knowledgeable people that share the same interest.
    If you have any recommendations, please let me know.
    Cheers!

    Feel free to surf to my web site: http://haojiafu.net/

  29. Hmm is anyone else having problems with the images on this blog loading?
    I’m trying to find out if its a problem on my end or if it’s the
    blog. Any suggestions would be greatly appreciated.

    my website :: kebe.top

  30. Wonderful work! That is the kind of info that are
    supposed to be shared across the internet. Shame on the search engines for
    now not positioning this post higher! Come on over and seek
    advice from my website . Thank you =)

    my web site: haojiafu.net

  31. Good day! I know this is kinda off topic however I’d
    figured I’d ask. Would you be interested in exchanging links or maybe guest writing a blog article or vice-versa?
    My site goes over a lot of the same topics as yours and I believe we could greatly benefit from each other.
    If you are interested feel free to shoot me an e-mail. I look forward to hearing
    from you! Excellent blog by the way!

    My homepage – hotelforrest.ru

  32. Whats up very nice blog!! Guy .. Excellent .. Superb ..
    I will bookmark your site and take the feeds
    also? I’m satisfied to search out so many useful information right here within the submit, we want
    develop more techniques in this regard, thanks for sharing.

    . . . . .

    Feel free to visit my website – mpc-install.com

  33. Hey There. I found your blog using msn. This is an extremely well written article.
    I’ll make sure to bookmark it and return to read more of your useful information. Thanks
    for the post. I will certainly return.

    Feel free to surf to my page :: chengdian.cc

  34. Hey, I think your website might be having browser compatibility issues.

    When I look at your website in Safari, it looks fine but when opening in Internet Explorer, it has some overlapping.
    I just wanted to give you a quick heads up!
    Other then that, very good blog!

    Also visit my website … diclelife.com

  35. Hmm it appears like your website ate my first comment (it
    was extremely long) so I guess I’ll just sum it up what I submitted and say,
    I’m thoroughly enjoying your blog. I as
    well am an aspiring blog writer but I’m still new to everything.
    Do you have any helpful hints for novice blog writers? I’d definitely appreciate it.

    Have a look at my blog: http://800ws.net/forum.php?mod=viewthread&tid=530841

  36. I do not even know how I ended up here, however I assumed this put up was good.

    I do not understand who you’re but definitely you are going to a famous
    blogger if you aren’t already 😉 Cheers!

    Stop by my blog shihan.com.ru

  37. Hey there just wanted to give you a quick heads up and
    let you know a few of the images aren’t loading correctly.
    I’m not sure why but I think its a linking issue. I’ve tried it in two
    different internet browsers and both show the same outcome.

    Feel free to visit my web page … anapa-alrosa.com.ru

  38. Hi there, just became aware of your blog through Google,
    and found that it is really informative. I’m gonna watch out for brussels.
    I will appreciate if you continue this in future.
    A lot of people will be benefited from your writing.
    Cheers!

    Feel free to visit my webpage – http://chengdian.cc/

  39. Howdy! This blog post couldn’t be written much better!
    Reading through this article reminds me of my previous
    roommate! He continually kept preaching about this.
    I am going to send this information to him.
    Fairly certain he’ll have a very good read. Thank you for sharing!

    Also visit my blog post … frun-test.sakura.ne.jp

  40. An impressive share! I’ve just forwarded this onto a colleague
    who had been conducting a little homework on this.
    And he in fact ordered me lunch simply because I found it for him…

    lol. So let me reword this…. Thanks for the meal!!
    But yeah, thanx for spending the time to talk about this matter here on your web page.

    Check out my web blog; haojiafu.net

  41. My brother suggested I may like this blog. He was entirely right.
    This submit actually made my day. You can not believe simply how much
    time I had spent for this info! Thank you!

    Check out my blog … kebe.top

  42. Just wish to say your article is as astounding. The
    clearness for your post is simply spectacular and i could think you’re an expert in this subject.
    Well with your permission let me to clutch your RSS feed to keep up to date with forthcoming post.
    Thank you a million and please carry on the gratifying
    work.

    my web blog: clubriders.men

  43. It is perfect time to make some plans for the future and it is time to be happy.
    I have read this post and if I could I desire to suggest you some interesting things or tips.
    Perhaps you could write next articles referring to this article.
    I want to read even more things about it!

    Here is my webpage … http://www.lubertsi.net/modules.php?name=Your_Account&op=userinfo&username=LauterbachVon

  44. It’s awesome to pay a quick visit this web site and reading the views of all colleagues on the
    topic of this post, while I am also zealous of getting knowledge.

    Have a look at my web blog … 800ws.net

  45. I was just searching for this information for a while.
    After 6 hours of continuous Googleing, finally I
    got it in your site. I wonder what’s the lack of Google strategy that don’t rank this type of informative sites in top of the list.
    Generally the top sites are full of garbage.

    Feel free to surf to my website http://haojiafu.net/

  46. It’s appropriate time to make some plans for the longer
    term and it is time to be happy. I’ve learn this post and
    if I may just I wish to recommend you few attention-grabbing things or tips.
    Perhaps you can write next articles referring to
    this article. I want to learn even more issues approximately it!

    Also visit my website; http://chengdian.cc

  47. My spouse and I absolutely love your blog and find the majority of
    your post’s to be exactly what I’m looking for.
    Would you offer guest writers to write content available for you?

    I wouldn’t mind publishing a post or elaborating on a number of the
    subjects you write in relation to here. Again,
    awesome web log!

    Also visit my webpage … chengdian.cc

  48. Very good website you have here but I was wondering if you knew of any forums
    that cover the same topics talked about here? I’d really love to be a part of group where I can get feed-back from
    other knowledgeable individuals that share the same interest.
    If you have any recommendations, please let me know. Kudos!

    Also visit my site; 163.30.42.16

  49. Whats up very cool site!! Man .. Beautiful .. Superb ..

    I’ll bookmark your site and take the feeds also…I am satisfied to seek out so many useful
    information here within the publish, we need work out extra techniques in this
    regard, thank you for sharing.

    Also visit my web blog – http://www.craksracing.com

  50. I was suggested this website by my cousin. I am not sure whether this post
    is written by him as nobody else know such detailed about
    my trouble. You’re amazing! Thanks!

    Also visit my web site – Murray

  51. My husband and i have been quite more than happy that Chris could do his investigations while using the ideas he
    had while using the site. It’s not at all simplistic to just find
    yourself giving out things which often many others may have been making
    money from. Therefore we recognize we now have the blog owner to thank for that.
    The most important illustrations you have made, the simple website navigation, the friendships you can make
    it possible to instill – it’s many overwhelming, and it’s really
    making our son in addition to our family imagine that the subject
    matter is satisfying, and that is truly essential. Thank you for all!

    My page; http://duna-anapa.net.ru/

  52. Hey I know this is off topic but I was wondering if you knew of any widgets I could
    add to my blog that automatically tweet my newest twitter updates.
    I’ve been looking for a plug-in like this for quite some time
    and was hoping maybe you would have some experience with something like this.
    Please let me know if you run into anything. I truly enjoy reading your blog and I look forward to your new updates.

    my webpage https://kebe.top/

  53. My brother suggested I would possibly like this website.
    He used to be entirely right. This post truly made my day.
    You can not imagine just how a lot time I had spent for this information! Thank you!

    My website atomy123.com

  54. I wanted to follow along and allow you to know how , a great deal I valued discovering your web site today.
    I would consider it a real honor to do things at my office and be able to utilize the tips
    discussed on your web page and also be involved in visitors’ responses
    like this. Should a position regarding guest writer become offered at
    your end, you should let me know.

    My blog post: clubriders.men

  55. I’m not sure exactly why but this website is loading very slow for
    me. Is anyone else having this problem or is it a issue on my end?
    I’ll check back later on and see if the problem still exists.

    Also visit my homepage: Roberto

  56. Hi, Neat post. There’s a problem together with your web site in internet explorer, would
    check this? IE nonetheless is the marketplace leader and a huge part of folks
    will leave out your wonderful writing due
    to this problem.

    Feel free to surf to my website Daniela

  57. I’m amazed, I have to admit. Rarely do I encounter a blog that’s both equally educative
    and interesting, and let me tell you, you’ve hit the nail on the head.
    The problem is something that too few folks are speaking intelligently about.
    I am very happy I found this during my hunt for something relating to this.

    my blog post https://mpc-install.com/

  58. Hmm is anyone else encountering problems with
    the images on this blog loading? I’m trying to figure out if its a problem on my end or if it’s the blog.
    Any feed-back would be greatly appreciated.

    my blog :: kebe.top

  59. My brother suggested I would possibly like this blog. He was once totally right.
    This submit actually made my day. You cann’t believe
    simply how much time I had spent for this information! Thank you!

    Feel free to surf to my web blog – clubriders.men

  60. Hello, Neat post. There’s an issue together with your
    web site in internet explorer, might test this?
    IE nonetheless is the market chief and a large component to folks will miss your fantastic writing because of this problem.

    Here is my web-site – mpc-install.com

  61. An outstanding share! I have just forwarded this onto a friend who had been doing a little research
    on this. And he actually ordered me breakfast due to the
    fact that I found it for him… lol. So allow me to
    reword this…. Thanks for the meal!! But yeah, thanx
    for spending the time to discuss this issue here on your web
    site.

    My web page … http://www.aniene.net/modules.php?name=Your_Account&op=userinfo&username=MayoGerman

  62. Great – I should certainly pronounce, impressed with your site.
    I had no trouble navigating through all the tabs and related information ended
    up being truly easy to do to access. I recently found what I hoped for
    before you know it in the least. Quite unusual. Is likely to appreciate it for those who add forums or anything, site theme .

    a tones way for your client to communicate. Nice task.

    Also visit my web blog: https://mpc-install.com/punbb-1.4.6/viewtopic.php?id=374686

  63. Magnificent beat ! I wish to apprentice at the same time as you amend your website,
    how can i subscribe for a weblog web site? The account helped me a appropriate deal.
    I have been a little bit familiar of this your broadcast provided vivid clear concept.

    Look at my web site :: clubriders.men

  64. I’m impressed, I must say. Rarely do I come across
    a blog that’s both educative and interesting, and let me tell you, you
    have hit the nail on the head. The problem is something which not enough men and women are speaking intelligently about.
    I am very happy I came across this in my search
    for something concerning this.

    my webpage – http://www.lubertsi.net

  65. Thanks for sharing excellent informations. Your site is so cool.

    I’m impressed by the details that you’ve on this blog.
    It reveals how nicely you perceive this subject.
    Bookmarked this website page, will come back for extra articles.
    You, my friend, ROCK! I found just the information I already searched all over the place and just could not come across.

    What a perfect site.

    my website; https://bbs.yunweishidai.com/forum.php?mod=viewthread&tid=1315196

  66. Pretty section of content. I just stumbled upon your weblog and in accession capital to assert that I
    get actually enjoyed account your blog posts.

    Any way I will be subscribing to your feeds and even I achievement
    you access consistently quickly.

    Feel free to surf to my web blog – http://www.medflyfish.com

  67. Oh my goodness! Impressive article dude!
    Many thanks, However I am having troubles with your RSS.
    I don’t understand why I am unable to subscribe to it. Is there anybody getting similar RSS issues?
    Anyone who knows the answer can you kindly respond?
    Thanks!!

    My web blog – khoquet.com

  68. I would like to consider the ability of thanking you
    for the professional instruction I have constantly
    enjoyed viewing your site. I’m looking forward
    to the commencement of my university research and
    the whole groundwork would never have been complete without coming to your web blog.

    If I can be of any assistance to others, I would be pleased to help through what I have
    learned from here.

    Feel free to visit my website; chubbychannel.com

  69. I am really loving the theme/design of your blog. Do you ever run into any internet browser compatibility problems?
    A small number of my blog readers have complained about my blog not working correctly in Explorer
    but looks great in Firefox. Do you have any recommendations to help fix
    this issue?

    my blog – mpc-install.com

  70. I would like to thnkx for the efforts you have put in writing this web site. I’m hoping the same high-grade blog post from you in the upcoming also. In fact your creative writing skills has inspired me to get my own web site now. Actually the blogging is spreading its wings rapidly. Your write up is a good example of it.

  71. It?¦s actually a great and useful piece of info. I am glad that you just shared this helpful info with us. Please stay us up to date like this. Thanks for sharing.

  72. Hello! I simply would like to give a huge thumbs up for the good info you could have here on this post. I will probably be coming back to your weblog for extra soon.

  73. Its such as you learn my thoughts! You appear to understand a lot about this, such as you wrote
    the ebook in it or something. I feel that you simply
    could do with some p.c. to drive the message home a bit, however instead of that,
    that is fantastic blog. A fantastic read. I will definitely be back.

    Also visit my page :: http://shihan.com.ru/modules.php?name=Your_Account&op=userinfo&username=BeattieAngeles

  74. I enjoy you because of each of your work on this web page.
    My mom delights in conducting internet research and it’s obvious
    why. All of us know all of the powerful manner you offer very helpful secrets by means of the web site
    and in addition cause contribution from some others on the concern while our girl is undoubtedly studying
    a great deal. Take advantage of the remaining portion of the new year.
    You are doing a splendid job.

    Feel free to visit my web page :: blakeottinger.com

  75. Ꭲhis is the right sitе for anybody who wants to find out about this toрic.
    You realize a whole lot its almost tojgh to argue with you
    (not that I personally would want to…HaHa). You certainly put ɑ brand new spin on a subjеct tһat’s
    been written about for years. Excellent ѕtuff, јust wonderful!

    Heгe is my homepage: Live Draw SGP

  76. I am only commenting to make you be aware of what a really good encounter our princess encountered reading your site.
    She realized many details, which included how it is like to possess an ideal teaching heart to let most people without difficulty
    gain knowledge of a number of complicated topics.
    You truly exceeded readers’ desires. I appreciate you for
    imparting these beneficial, safe, explanatory not to mention easy thoughts on that
    topic to Kate.

    My website: Zenzi CBD Gummies

  77. Hiya, I am really glad I’ve found this information. Today bloggers publish only about
    gossips and net and this is actually frustrating. A good
    website with exciting content, this is what I need. Thanks for keeping this website, I
    will be visiting it. Do you do newsletters? Can not find it.

    My web blog – Advanced CBD Reviews

  78. I just could not leave your web site before suggesting that I actually loved the usual info an individual supply for your visitors? Is gonna be back regularly to check out new posts.

  79. Thank you for your entire efforts on this web site.
    My mum really loves carrying out investigation and it’s obvious why.
    I know all regarding the dynamic ways you convey practical
    information by means of this web site and even boost contribution from
    visitors on that concern and our own girl has always been starting to
    learn a great deal. Enjoy the rest of the new year. You’re performing a fantastic
    job.

    Have a look at my site … Vallie

  80. Roblox members can choose to play and create alone or, with the assistance
    of private and customisable avatars, they’ll choose to be
    social and interact with others.

  81. I have been surfing on-line greater than 3 hours lately, but I never
    found any fascinating article like yours. It’s lovely value sufficient for me.
    Personally, if all webmasters and bloggers made
    excellent content as you did, the net will probably be
    much more helpful than ever before.

  82. When I originally commented I clicked the “Notify me when new comments are added” checkbox and now each time a comment is added I get
    three e-mails with the same comment. Is there any
    way you can remove me from that service? Cheers!

  83. I believe what you published made a ton of sense.
    But, think about this, what if you were to write a awesome post title?

    I mean, I don’t want to tell you how to run your blog, however what if you added something that grabbed a
    person’s attention? I mean TINJAUAN TEORI PERBUATAN  MELAWAN  HUKUM
    | beritahukum-kebijakanpublik.com is kinda vanilla.
    You could glance at Yahoo’s home page and note how they create post titles to get people to click.
    You might add a related video or a pic or two to get readers excited about
    everything’ve got to say. In my opinion, it might bring your
    posts a little bit more interesting.

    my web-site; Maximum Recall

  84. I have been exploring for a little bit for any high-quality articles or weblog posts on this sort of space .
    Exploring in Yahoo I ultimately stumbled upon this site.
    Reading this info So i’m happy to show that I’ve an incredibly just right uncanny feeling
    I found out just what I needed. I so much definitely will
    make certain to do not put out of your mind this website and provides it a
    look on a continuing basis.

    my web site :: Molten Keto Garcinia

  85. Hello, i read your blog occasionally and i own a similar one and i was just curious if you get a lot of spam feedback?

    If so how do you reduce it, any plugin or anything you can advise?
    I get so much lately it’s driving me insane so any support
    is very much appreciated.

  86. I just couldn’t depart your website prior to suggesting that I extremely enjoyed the standard info an individual supply for your visitors? Is going to be back incessantly in order to check out new posts.

  87. Hey there, You have done an excellent job. I will certainly digg it and for my
    part suggest to my friends. I’m confident they will
    be benefited from this web site.

    Here is my web-site … Roman

  88. Hi this is kinda of off topic but I was wanting to know if
    blogs use WYSIWYG editors or if you have to manually code with HTML.
    I’m starting a blog soon but have no coding know-how so I wanted to get advice from someone with experience.
    Any help would be greatly appreciated!

  89. I leave a response each time I especially enjoy a post on a website
    or if I have something to valuable to contribute to the conversation. It’s triggered by
    the fire communicated in the post I read. And on this article The Growing Trends in Content Theft: Image Theft,
    Feed Scraping, and Website Hijacking ? Lorelle on WordPress.

    I was actually excited enough to drop a thought 😛 I actually do have some questions
    for you if it’s okay. Is it only me or do some of the remarks appear like they are coming from
    brain dead visitors? 😛 And, if you are posting on other online social sites, I’d like to follow everything fresh you have to post.
    Could you list the complete urls of all your
    communal sites like your linkedin profile, Facebook page or twitter feed?

  90. I have been surfing on-line greater than three hours today, yet I by no means found any interesting article like yours.
    It is beautiful worth sufficient for me. In my view, if all web owners
    and bloggers made just right content material as you probably did,
    the net shall be a lot more helpful than ever before.

  91. I have been browsing online more than 4 hours today, yet
    I never found any interesting article like yours.
    It’s pretty worth enough for me. In my view, if all webmasters and
    bloggers made good content as you did, the net will be much more useful than ever
    before.

  92. I’ll immediately take hold of your rss feed as I
    can not in finding your email subscription link or e-newsletter service.

    Do you have any? Please allow me recognise so that I may just subscribe.
    Thanks.

  93. Hiya very nice blog!! Man .. Excellent .. Amazing ..
    I will bookmark your web site and take the feeds
    additionally…I am satisfied to search out a lot of helpful info right here in the put up, we want develop more strategies in this regard, thank you for sharing.

    Look at my webpage :: Vigalix Reviews

  94. Hey just wanted to give you a quick heads up. The words
    in your post seem to be running off the screen in Chrome.
    I’m not sure if this is a formatting issue or something
    to do with browser compatibility but I figured I’d post
    to let you know. The style and design look great though!
    Hope you get the issue solved soon. Cheers

  95. Hello! This is my first comment here so I just wanted to give a quick shout out
    and say I truly enjoy reading through your blog posts.
    Can you recommend any other blogs/websites/forums that cover the
    same topics? Many thanks!

  96. Wow, wonderful weblog structure! How lengthy have you ever been running a blog for? you make running a blog look easy. The entire look of your website is excellent, as neatly as the content material!

  97. Heya i am for the first time here. I found this board and I find It really useful & it
    helped me out much. I hope to give something back and aid others like you aided
    me.

  98. Having read this I thought it was rather informative. I appreciate you spending some time
    and effort to put this article together. I once again find myself personally
    spending way too much time both reading and leaving comments.
    But so what, it was still worthwhile!

    My web page Reneaux Skin Care

  99. Excellent blog you have here but I was curious about if you knew of any message boards that cover the same topics talked about in this article?
    I’d really like to be a part of online community where I can get feed-back from
    other experienced people that share the same interest.
    If you have any recommendations, please let me know.
    Cheers!

    Also visit my website: GrownMD Reviews

  100. What i do not realize is in fact how you are now not really much more
    neatly-appreciated than you may be now. You’re very intelligent.

    You already know thus considerably relating to this topic, made me in my view believe
    it from a lot of numerous angles. Its like men and women are not involved unless
    it is something to do with Girl gaga! Your individual stuffs excellent.
    Always handle it up!

  101. Good day! I could have sworn I’ve been to this website before but after browsing through some of the post I realized it’s new to me.
    Nonetheless, I’m definitely delighted I found it and I’ll be bookmarking and checking back often!

  102. It is the best time to make some plans for the future and it’s time to be happy.
    I’ve read this post and if I could I wish to suggest you some interesting things or suggestions.

    Perhaps you could write next articles referring
    to this article. I desire to read more things about it!

  103. Hi would you mind letting me know which hosting
    company you’re utilizing? I’ve loaded your blog in 3 different web browsers and I must say this blog
    loads a lot faster then most. Can you recommend a good
    web hosting provider at a honest price? Thanks, I appreciate it!

  104. I have been browsing online more than 3 hours lately, but I never found any interesting article like yours. It is beautiful price enough for me. Personally, if all website owners and bloggers made just right content as you probably did, the net can be a lot more useful than ever before. firmonet

  105. Howdy! I know this is kinda off topic however I’d figured I’d ask.
    Would you be interested in trading links or maybe guest authoring a blog post or vice-versa?
    My blog discusses a lot of the same subjects as yours and I believe we could greatly benefit from
    each other. If you happen to be interested feel free to send me
    an e-mail. I look forward to hearing from you! Excellent blog by the way!

    Feel free to visit my web page … Androrexin Reviews

  106. Hello just wanted to give you a quick heads up. The words
    in your article seem to be running off the screen in Opera.

    I’m not sure if this is a format issue or something to do
    with internet browser compatibility but I figured I’d post to let you know.

    The layout look great though! Hope you get the issue fixed soon. Cheers scoliosis surgery https://0401mm.tumblr.com/ scoliosis surgery

  107. Global Gerçek İnstagram Takipçi Satın Al
    Hem gerçek hem de kalıcı sosyal medya takipçisine ulaşmak oldukça zordur.
    Bu sayı 10 bin olduğunda çok daha zordur.

    Takip2018 uzman ekip üyeleri tarafından sağlanan gerçek ve kalıcı takipçiler ile sosyal medya hesabınız kısa sürede Keşfet sayfasında yerini alabilir.

    Siz de İnstagram takipçi satın al kategorisinde yer alan 10 bin yurt
    içi ve yurt dışı takipçinin yer aldığı
    paketimizi tercih edebilirsiniz.

    Diğer tüm paketleri görebilmek adına instagram takipçi satın al linkimiz ; instagram takipçi satın al

  108. naturally like your web site but you have to test the spelling on several of your posts.
    Several of them are rife with spelling problems and I find it very bothersome to inform the truth nevertheless I’ll certainly come again again.

  109. Nice post. I was checking constantly this weblog and I am impressed!
    Extremely helpful information specially the remaining part
    🙂 I deal with such information a lot. I used to be looking
    for this particular information for a very long time.
    Thank you and best of luck.

    Here is my website: internet marketing

News Feed