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KRIMINALISASI DAN PENALISASI

KRIMINALISASI DAN PENALISASI

 

Dalam bukunya yang berjudul “TEORI – TEORI DAN KEBIJAKAN HUKUM PIDANA” ahli hukum pidana MULADI dan BARDA NAWAWI ARIEF mengemukakan doktrin dengan menyatakan bahwa sebagai suatu kebijakan, kriminalisasi dimaknai sebagai suatu proses  untuk menentukan perbuatan apa yang  dilarang karena membahayakan atau merugikan, dan sanksi apa yang harus dijatuhkan, serta sistem peradilan pidana sebagai proses penegakkannya. Sedangkan Yenti Garnasih dengan mengintrodusir pendapat Hoefnagels menjelaskan bahwa kriminalisasi adalah sesuatu perbuatan atau suatu hal yang menjadi suatu tindakan yang sebelumnya bukan merupakan perbuatan yang dapat dipidana menjadi perbuatan yang dapat dipidana,

Dalam konteks kerangka teoritis yang dikemukakan para ahli hukum tersebut,  dapat pula dinyatakan bahwa peningkatan atau penambahan sanksi pidana terhadap sanksi pidana yang sudah ada dapat dikualifikasikan sebagai kebijakan kriminalisasi.    Dengan demikian, ruang lingkup kriminalisasi, tidak hanya mengenai penentuan kebijakan atas suatu perbuatan yang semula bukan merupakan perbuatan atau tindakan yang dilarang, tetapi mencakup juga mengenai penambahan atau peningkatan sanksi pidana atas sanksi pidana yang sudah ada.

Berkaitan dengan fenomena yuridis mengenai kebijakan kriminalisasi,  Sudarto mengatakan bahwa dalam mengkriminalisasi suatu perbuatan harus mempertimbangkan hal – hal sebagai berikut:

  1. Penggunaan hukum pidana harus memperhatikan tujuan pembangunan nasional, yaitu mewujudkan masyarakat adil dan makmur yang merata materil dan spirituil berdasarkan Pancasila. Dalam kaitannya dengan hal ini, penggunaan hukum pidana bertujuan untuk menanggulangi kejahatan dan mengadakan pengugeran terhadap tindakan tindakan penanggulangan itu sendiri demi kesejahteraan dan pengayoman masyarakat;
  2. Perbuatan yang diusahakan untuk dicegah atau ditanggulangi dengan hukum pidana harus merupakan perbuatan yang tidak dikehendaki, yaitu perbuatan yang mendatangkan kerugian (materil dan spirituil) atas warga negara;
  3. Penggunaan hukum pidana harus pula memperhatikan prinsip biaya dan hasil (cost and benefit principle);
  4. Penggunaan hukum pidana harus pula memperhatikan kepastian atau kemampuan daya kerja dari badan – badan penegak hukum yaitu jangan sampai ada kelampauan batas tugas (overbelasting).

Dalam konteks kajian ilmiah – yuridis lain yang hampir berpadanan dengan KRIMINALISASI adalah PENALISASI  yaitu suatu proses untuk mengatur dan mengancam suatu perbuatan atau tindakan yang dilarang dan/atau yang bertentangan dengan kewajiban menurut hukum, dengan sanksi pidana. Secara esensial, upaya penalisasi sangat berkaitan dengan kebijakan kriminalisasi, oleh karena secara prosedural kebijakan untuk menentukan suatu perbuatan atau tindakan tertentu dikualifikasikan sebagai perbuatan atau tindakan yang dilarang atau bertentangan dengan kewajiban hukum yang disebut dengan TINDAK PIDANA, maka kemudian diikuti dengan kebijakan menentukan ancaman sanksi pidana dan sanksi lainnya sesuai dengan ketentuan hukum, atas pebuatan atau tindakan atau perilaku yang bertentang dengan norma hukum tersebut. Secara gamblang dapat dinyatakan bahwa kriminalisasi adalah kebijakan menentukan suatua perbuatan atau tindakan sebagai suatu TINDAK PIDANA, sedangkan penalisasi adalah kebijakan untuk mengatur dan menentukan SANKSI PIDANA. Norma hukum yang bersifat larangan mempunyai hubungan kausalitas dengan kebijakan kriminalisasi yang selanjutnya diikuti dengan penerapan penalisasi.

 

Writer and Copy Right:
Dr. (Cand.) Appe Hamonangan Hutauruk, SH., MH.
Lecturer, Advocate and Legal Consultant
Handphone: 0818964919, 085959597919, 081213502002

 

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#SalamPersasaudaraan:
APPE HAMONANGAN HUTAURUK

 

 

LAW  FIRM APPE  HAMONANGAN   HUTAURUK & ASSOCIATES
KETUA  UMUM  DPP LSM  KOMAKOPEPA
AKTIVIS’98

About Author: Appe Hamonangan Hutauruk

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Appe Hamonangan Hutauruk selaku Penulis tunggal pada Website: "BERITA HUKUM & KEBIJAKAN PUBLIK" adalah seorang "Pegiat Penegakkan Hukum dan Hak Asasi Manusia" serta "Pemerhati Sosial Kemasyarakatan" yang berprofesi sebagai Advokat (Advocate), Konsultan Hukum (Legal Consultant) dan Dosen (lecturer) pada salah satu Universitas swasta di Jakarta, selain itu juga menduduki jabatan sebagai Ketua Umum pada Lembaga Swadaya Masyarakat (LSM) bernama "Komunitas Masyarakat Anti Korupsi dan Penggelapan Pajak (KOMAKOPEPA). youtube.com/c/BeritaHukumKebijakanPublik

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