Prof. J.H.A. Logemann, secara eksplisit menyatakan: “Hukum Tata Negara adalah hukum yang mengatur organisasi negara”. Pengertian negara (state) menurut Logemann adalah “suatu organisasi kemasyarakatan yang bertujuan dengan kekuasaannya mengatur serta menyelenggarakan suatu masyarakat”.  Sedangkan secara umum dapat dikatakan bahwa  Hukum Tata Negara (HTN) pada dasarnya adalah hukum yang mengatur organisasi kekuasaan suatu Negara beserta segala aspek yang berkaitan dengan organisasi Negara tersebut.

Terminologi  “staatsrecht” di negara Belanda  dibagi menjadi “staatsrech in ruimere zin” (dalam arti luas) dan “staatsrech In engere zin” (dalam arti sempit). Staatsrech in ruimere zin adalah Hukum Negara. Sedangkan staatsrech in engere zin adalah hukum yang membedakan Hukum Tata Negara dari Hukum Administrasi Negara, Hukum Tata Usaha Negara atau Hukum Tata Pemerintah.

Oppenheim menyatakan bahwa Hukum Tata Negara itu sama dengan negara dalam keadaan tidak bergerak (staat in beweging), sedangkan Hukum Administrasi Negara atau Hukum Tata Usaha Negara atau Hukum Tata Pemerintahan seumpama negara dalam keadaan bergerak  (staat in rust).

Sumber Hukum Tata Negara dapat dibagi menjadi 2 (dua) yaitu Sumber Hukum Formil dan Sumber Hukum Materil. Sumber hukum materil  dari Hukum Tata Negara Indonesia adalah Pancasila sebagai pandangan hidup bangsa Indonesia kemudian menjadi falsafah negara, yang tidak saja menjiwai bahkan harus dilaksanakan dan terwajantah dalam  setiap aspek hukum dan peraturan perundang – undangan.

Sumber hukum FORMIL  dari Hukum Tata Negara, meliputi:

  • UUD 1945;
  • Undang – Undang/Peraturan Pemerintah Pengganti Undang – Undang;
  • Peraturan Pemerintah;
  • Keputusan Presiden;
  • Peraturan Pelaksana (Peraturan Organik) lainnya, misalnya Peraturan Menteri, Peraturan Daerah dan sebagainya.
  • Kebiasaan ketatanegaraan (Convention);
  • Traktat/Perjanjian Internasional (Treaty);

Ruang lingkup Hukum Tata Negara adalah mencakup seluruh  struktur umum dari negara (state)  sebagai suatu organisasi, yaitu:

  1. Bentuk Negara (misalnya: apakah bentuk suatu negara  Kesatuan atau Federasi)
  2. Bentuk Pemerintahan (misalnya: apakah bentuk pemerintahannya Kerajaan atau Republik)
  3. Sistem Pemerintahan (misalnya: apakah sistem pemerintahan suatu negara adalah Presidentil, Parlementer, Monarki absolute)
  4. Corak Pemerintahan (misalnya: apakah Diktator Praktis, Nasionalis, Liberal, Sosialis, Demokrasi)
  5. Sistem Pendelegasian Kekuasaan Negara (misalnya: apakah menganut sistemSentralisasi atau  Desentralisasi, dimana sistem – sistem tersebut  meliputi jumlah, dasar, cara dan hubungan antara pemerintahan pusat dan pemerintahan daerah).

Sumber hukum materil dari Hukum Tata Negara adalah sumber yang menentukan isi kaidah hukum tata negara, dalam hal ini salah satu  sumber hukum yang termasuk dalam arti materiil yaitu Pancasila sebagai ideologi dan pandangan hidup (way of life) rakyat Indonesia dalam kehidupan berbangsa dan  bernegara, adat – istiadat masyarakat Indonesia (kebiasaan), keadaan dan perkembangan tuntutan jaman di segala bidang seperti politik, ekonomi, pertahanan – keamanan, teknologi, sosial – budaya dan sebagainya.


Writer and Copy Right:
Appe Hamonangan Hutauruk, SH., MH.
Lecturer, Advocate and Legal Consultant
Handphone: 0818964919, 085959597919, 081213502002




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About Author: Appe Hamonangan Hutauruk

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Appe Hamonangan Hutauruk selaku Penulis tunggal pada Website: "BERITA HUKUM & KEBIJAKAN PUBLIK" adalah seorang "Pegiat Penegakkan Hukum dan Hak Asasi Manusia" serta "Pemerhati Sosial Kemasyarakatan" yang berprofesi sebagai Advokat (Advocate), Konsultan Hukum (Legal Consultant) dan Dosen (lecturer) pada salah satu Universitas swasta di Jakarta, selain itu juga menduduki jabatan sebagai Ketua Umum pada Lembaga Swadaya Masyarakat (LSM) bernama "Komunitas Masyarakat Anti Korupsi dan Penggelapan Pajak (KOMAKOPEPA).


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