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FENOMENA  PARTAI POLITIK

 FENOMENA  PARTAI POLITIK

 

Secara general  dapat dikatakan bahwa PARTAI POLITIK  (political party) adalah suatu kelompok yang terorganisir, yang anggota – anggotanya mempunyai orientasi, nilai – nilai dan cita – cita yang sama. Tujuan dari kelompok yang terorganisir  ini adalah  untuk memperoleh kekuasaan politik  (political power) dan merebut kedudukan politik  (political position), yang umumnya dilakukan  dengan cara – cara  konstitusional, dengan maksud  untuk melaksanakan kebijakan – kebijakan kelompok tersebut (their group policies). Pengertian lain dapat pula dikemukakan, bahwa  Partai Politik adalah organisasi politik yang menjalani ideologi tertentu atau dibentuk dengan tujuan umum. Atau definisi lainnya menjelaskan bahwa Partai Politik  adalah kelompok yang terorganisir yang anggota-anggotanya mempunyai orientasi, nilai-nilai, dan cita-cita yang sama. Definisikan lain menjelaskan bahwa Partai Politik merupakan perkumpulan (segolongan orang-orang) yang seasas, sehaluan, setujuan di bidang politik. Baik yang berdasarkan partai kader atau struktur kepartaian yang dimonopoli oleh sekelompok anggota partai yang terkemuka.

Aktivitas seseorang dalam partai politik merupakan suatu bentuk partisipasi politik. Partisipasi politik mencakup semua kegiatan sukarela melalui mana seseorang turut serta dalam proses pemilihan pemimpin – pemimpin politik dan turut serta secara lansung atau tidak langsung dalam pembentukan kebijakan umum. Kegiatan – kegiatan ini mencakup kegiatan memilih dalam pemilihan umum; menjadi anggota golongan politik seperti partai, kelompok penekan, kelompok kepentingan; duduk dalam lembaga politik seperti Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat atau mengadakan komunitas dengan wakil – wakil rakyat yang duduk dalam badan itu; berkampanye, dan menghadiri kelompok diskusi, dan sebagainya. (Kebalikan partisipasi adalah apati. Seseorang dinamakan apatis (secara politik) jika dia tidak ikut serta dalam kegiatan – kegiatan tersebut diatas).

Partai politik merupakan  sarana politik yang menjembatani elit-elit politik dalam upaya mencapai kekuasaan politik dalam suatu negara yang bercirikan mandiri dalam hal finansial, memiliki platform atau haluan politik tersendiri, mengusung kepentingan-kepentingan kelompok dalam urusan politik, dan turut menyumbang political development sebagai suprastruktur politik. “Kekuasaan politik adalah kemampuan untuk mempengaruhi kebijakan umum (pemerintah), baik dalam proses terbentuknya maupun akibat – akibatnya sesuai dengan tujuan – tujuan pemegang kekuasaan itu sendiri. Dalam hal ini, kekuasaan pada dasarnya adalah suatu hubungan yang didasarkan ketidaksamaan, dimana kekuasaan dalam negara selalu berbentuk piramida, yang diakibatkan oleh adanya kenyataan bahwa kekuasaan yang satu lebih unggul dari kekuasaan yang lain, dan kekuasaan yang unggul mengsubordinasi kekuasaan – kekuasaan lain”.[1]

Eksistensi Partai Politik di Indonesia  merupakan  organisasi yang bersifat  nasional dan dibentuk oleh sekelompok warga negara  Indonesia  secara sukarela atas dasar kesamaan kehendak dan cita-cita untuk memperjuangkan dan membela kepentingan politik anggota, masyarakat, bangsa dan negara, serta memelihara  keutuhan Negara Kesatuan Republik Indonesia  (NKRI) berdasarkan Pancasila dan Undang -Undang Dasar Negara Republik Indonesia  1945 (UUD 1945). Konsepsi  fundamental dan imperatif yang demikian,  secara eksplisit  diatur  dalam pasal  1 ayat 1 Undang – Undang Nomor  2 Tahun 2008  Tentang Partai Politik. Namu demikian, perlu dipahami bahwa agar Partai Politik dapat  mengikuti Pemilihan Umum (Pemilu) dalam rangka untuk merebut atau mempertahankan kekuasaan,  maka Partai  Politik wajib memenuhi persyaratan tertentu yang telah ditetapkan oleh peraturan perundang – undangan. Dalam konteks ini,  Komisi Pemilihan Umum (KPU) secara ex officio  melakukan proses verifikasi, dimana  proses verifikasi tersebut  terdiri dari  2 (dua)  tahapan, yaitu: 1)  verifikasi administrasi dan, 2)  verifikasi faktual.

Sebagai pedoman untuk  memahami Partai Politik sebagai salah satu komponen infrastruktur politik dalam negara, maka sangat relevan untuk mengemukakan  beberapa pengertian mengenai Partai Politik, sebagai berikut:

  1. CARL J. FRIEDRICH mengatakan: Partai Politik adalah sekelompok manusia yang terorganisir secara stabil dengan tujuan merebut atau mempertahankan penguasaan terhadap pemerintahan bagi pimpinan partainya dan berdasarkan penguasaan ini memberikan kepada anggota partainya kemanfaatan yang bersifat idiil maupun materil (A political party is a group of human beings, stably organized with the objective of securing or maintaining  for its leaders the control of a government, with the further objective of giving to members of the party, through such control ideal and material benefits and advantages).
  1. H. SOLTAU, menyatakan: “Partai politik adalah sekelompok warga negara yang sedikit banyak terorganisir, yang bertindak sebagai suatu kesatuan politik dan yang – dengan memanfaatkan kekuasaannya untuk memilih – bertujuan menguasai pemerintahan dan melaksanakan kebijaksanaan umum mereka (Political party is a group of citizens more or less organized, who act as a political unit and who, by the use of their voting power, aim to control the government and carry out their general policies)”;
  1. SIGMUND NEUMANN dalam karangannya Modern Political Parties mengemukakan definisi sebagai berikut: “Partai politik adalah organisasi dari aktivis – aktivis politik yang berusaha untuk menguasai kekuasaan pemerintahan serta merebut dukungan rakyat atas dasar persaingan dengan suatu golongan atau golongan – golongan lain yang mempunyai pandangan berbeda (A political party is the articulate organization of society’s active political agents, those who are concerned with the control of governmental power and who compete for popular support with another group or groups holding divergent views)”;
  1. MIRIAM BUDIARDJO, menjelaskan : “Partai Politik adalah suatu kelompok yang terorganisir yang anggota-anggotanya mempunyai orientasi, nilai-nilai, dan cita-cita yang sama dengan tujuan memperoleh kekuasaan politik dan merebut kedudukan politik (biasanya), dengan cara konstitusional guna melaksanakan kebijakan-kebijakan mereka”.

Partai berbeda dengan gerakan (movement). Suatu gerakan merupakan kelompok atau golongan yang ingin mengadakan perubahan – perubahan pada lembaga – lembaga politik atau kadang – kadang malahan ingin menciptakan suatu tata masyarakat yang baru sama sekali, dengan memakai cara – cara politik. Dibanding dengan partai politik, gerakan mempunyai tujuan yang lebih terbatas dan fundamental sifatnya, dan kadang – kadang malahan bersifat ideologi. Orientasi ini merupakan ikatan yang kuat diantara anggota – anggotanya dan dapat menumbuhkan suatu identitas kelompok (group identity) yang kuat. Organisasinya kurang ketat dibanding dengan partai politik. Berbeda dengan partai politik, gerakan sering tidak mengadukan nasib dalam pemilihan umum.

Partai politik juga berbeda dengan kelompok penekan (pressure group) atau istilah yang lebih banyak dipakai dewasa ini, kelompok kepentingan (interest group). Kelompok ini bertujuan untuk memperjuangkan sesuatu “kepentingan” dan mempengaruhi lembaga – lembaga politik agar mendapatkan keputusan yang menguntungkan atau menghindari keputusan yang merugikan. Kelompok kepentingan tidak berusaha untuk menempatkan wakil – wakilnya dalam Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat, melainkan cukup mempengaruhi satu atau beberapa partai di dalamnya atau instansi pemerintah atau menteri yang berwenang. Teranglah bahwa kelompok kepentingan mempunyai orientasi yang jauh lebih sempit daripada partai politik, yang karena mewakili pelbagai golongan, lebih banyak memperjuangkan kepentingan umum. Pun organisasi kelompok kepentingan lebih kendor dibanding dengan partai politik.

______________________

[1] I Gede Yusa, Hukum Tata Negara Pasca Perubahan UUD NRI 1945, Penerbit Setara Press, Malang, 2016, hlm. 216

 

Writer and Copy Right:
Dr. (Cand.) Appe Hamonangan Hutauruk, SH., MH.
Lecturer, Advocate and Legal Consultant
Handphone: 0818964919, 085959597919, 081213502002

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Appe Hamonangan Hutauruk selaku Penulis tunggal pada Website: "BERITA HUKUM & KEBIJAKAN PUBLIK" adalah seorang "Pegiat Penegakkan Hukum dan Hak Asasi Manusia" serta "Pemerhati Sosial Kemasyarakatan" yang berprofesi sebagai Advokat (Advocate), Konsultan Hukum (Legal Consultant) dan Dosen (lecturer) pada salah satu Universitas swasta di Jakarta, selain itu juga menduduki jabatan sebagai Ketua Umum pada Lembaga Swadaya Masyarakat (LSM) bernama "Komunitas Masyarakat Anti Korupsi dan Penggelapan Pajak (KOMAKOPEPA). youtube.com/c/BeritaHukumKebijakanPublik

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