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FILSAFAT YUNANI  DAN MASALAH – MASALAH POKOK FILSAFAT HUKUM

FILSAFAT YUNANI  DAN MASALAH – MASALAH POKOK FILSAFAT HUKUM

 

 

Dasar – dasar utama filsafat hukum Barat asalnya dari formuleeringen para ahli – ahli pikir Yunani, dari Homerus sampai kaum Stoa;

Yang merupakan latar belakang tetap dari renungan tentang hukum dan pemerintahan bangsa Yunani adalah timbulnya dan berkembangnya “Polis” (Negara Kota) Yunani; dimulai dengan lukisan penghidupan di negara kota diatas tameng Achilles (terutama dalam Ili’ad karangan Homerus) sampai renungan Plato dan Aristoteles;

Renungan mengenai “fungsi” dan “masalah” hukum di masyarakat Yunani dihasilkan oleh kombinasi dua unsur, yaitu:

  1. Kekacuan masyarakat Yunani, pertentangan – pertentangan dalam negeri, penggantian – penggantian yang sering terjadi, prilaku sewenang – wenang terhadap sesama warga negara pemerintahan dan sebagainya memberikan dorongan dari luar untuk berpikir tentang hubungan antara keadilan yang lebih tinggi dan hukum positif;
  2. Bakat istimewa dari bangsa Yunani, untuk memperoleh suatu pengertian, berdasarkan renungan (speculative insight), penglihatan menurut kecerdasan (intellectual perception), dapat ikut merasakan kesusahan sesama manusia dan pertentangan – pertentangan antara manusia, yang terdapat dalam filsafat dan poezie kaum Yunani, semuanya ini memberikan andeel (bagian) yang tidak kecil pada filsafat hukum, khususnya hal – hal yang mengenai keadilan abadi dan hukum positif;

Masalah – masalah pokok filsafat hukum sebagaimana di – formuleer oleh ahli – ahli pikir bangsa Yunani dan yang sampai sekarang masih juga merupakan masalah – masalah pokok filsafat hukum modern, yaitu:

  • Dalam karya Homerus “hukum” menduduki tempat yang penting akan tetapi belum/ tidak merupakan suatu masalah. Hukum dijelmakan dalam Themistes yang diterima oleh para raja dari “ZEUS” yang dianggap sebagai sumber keramat dari segala kejadian duniawi dan yang berdasarkan pada kebiasaan dan tradisi. Keadilan adalah masih identik dengan ketertiban dan kewibawaan;
  • Baru mulai abad ke – 8 dan kemudian,  timbullah kesadaran tentang konflik antara hukum positif dan keadilan.

Kesadaran  tentang konflik antara hukum positif dan keadilan tersebut sebagai latar belakang kekacauan dalam masyarakat, tidak puasnya rakyat terhadap pemerintahan aristokrasi dan penyalahgunaan kekuasaan. Masalah keadilan menguasai syair – syair  HESIOD dan SOLON, pembuat undang – undang ATICA yang tersohor. Kedua – duanya meminta pertolongan dari DIKE putri ZEUS sebagai penjamin keadilan “terhadap tirani dunia, pelanggaran hak – hak dan tidak adanya keadilan sosial”. Solon menggambarkan DIKE sebagai seorang dewi yang menghukum kekacauan dan ketidakadilan serta kejahatan – kejahatan sosial (sosial evil), sedangkan masyarakat yang adil dianugerahi dengan perdamaian dan kemakmuran.

Sejak waktu itu maka masalah hubungan antara keadilan dan hukum positif menguasai alam pikiran bangsa Yunani dan pada hakekatnya semua pikiran – pikran tentang hukum. Para filsuf alam dari Milesia mengarahkan perhatian mereka ke alam luar, sebagai sumber hukum yang lebih tetap, daripada hukum buatan manusia. Perkembangan tersebut menyebabkan para ahli pikir Yunani memikirkan tentang hubungan antara dunia luar dengan dunia dalam manusia. Pada fase pertama, tema utama adalah antitese antara “keperluan (kebutuhan” untuk menaati hukum positif negara, dan tuntutan kesusilaan yang lebih tinggi dari suatu hukum keramat yang tidak tertulis dan tak berubah – ubah. Pengutaraan klasik tentang hal tersebut terdapat dalam tragedi  AESCHYLUS dan SOPHOCLES. Kedua – duanya penulis (Aeschylus dalam bukunya EUMENIDES dan Sophocles dalam ANTIGONE) mengakhiri tulisan mereka dengan seruan (appeal) untuk menghormati hukum sebagai pelindung utama dari ketertiban perdamaian dan keseimbangan di negara.

Kedua – dua penulis tersebut oleh perasaan “kesempurnaan” yang mendahului kemunduran “demokrasi atica”, suatu kepercayaan pada kemajuan suatu masyarakat yang beradab dan yang dikuasai oleh peraturan – peraturan hukum, yang bijaksana diatas “anarki” dan “tirani” yang merajalela pada hari – hari sebelumnya.

Ucapan Klasik yang terakhir mengenai fase tersebut tentang pemikiran kaum Yunani mengenai hukum adalah: Pidato dari PERICLES (Pericles Funeral Oration) yang maknanya adalah supaya menaati perintah – perintah para penguasa yang termaktub dalam undang – undang, khususnya yang mengenai pemberian perlindungan kepada yang mendapat kesusahan, baik hal tersebut tertulis dalam suatu buku undang – undang maupun yang termasuk dalam suatu “Code” yang walaupun tidak tertulis tidak dapat dilanggar kareana akan diberi sanksi malu.

 

Created  and Posted By:
Appe Hamonangan Hutauruk, SH., MH.
Lecturer, Advocate and Legal Consultant
Handphone: 0818964919, 085959597919, 081213502002

 

Appe Hamonangan Hutauruk
I will serve the Lord where I am today

 

LAW  FIRM APPE  HAMONANGAN   HUTAURUK & ASSOCIATES
KETUA  UMUM  DPP LSM  KOMAKOPEPA
AKTIVIS’98

About Author: Appe Hamonangan Hutauruk

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Appe Hamonangan Hutauruk selaku Penulis tunggal pada Website: "BERITA HUKUM & KEBIJAKAN PUBLIK" adalah seorang "Pegiat Penegakkan Hukum dan Hak Asasi Manusia" serta "Pemerhati Sosial Kemasyarakatan" yang berprofesi sebagai Advokat (Advocate), Konsultan Hukum (Legal Consultant) dan Dosen (lecturer) pada salah satu Universitas swasta di Jakarta, selain itu juga menduduki jabatan sebagai Ketua Umum pada Lembaga Swadaya Masyarakat (LSM) bernama "Komunitas Masyarakat Anti Korupsi dan Penggelapan Pajak (KOMAKOPEPA). youtube.com/c/BeritaHukumKebijakanPublik

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